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This is the third part to our report on the main red flags compliance departments should look for to identify potential money laundering.
This section covers – Bank to Bank Transactions – Lending Activity – Cross Border Transactions and Currency Shipments.
You can navigate to our help on red flags in parts one and two from this post.
Jump to Specific Sections
Lending Activity Go to top
- Loans secured by pledged assets held by third parties unrelated to the borrower.
- Loan secured by deposits or other readily marketable assets, such as securities, particularly when owned by apparently unrelated third parties.
- Borrower defaults on a cash-secured loan or any loan that is secured by assets which are readily convertible into currency.
- Loans are made for, or are paid on behalf of, a third party with no reasonable explanation.
- To secure a loan, the customer purchases a certificate of deposit using an unknown source of funds, particularly when funds are provided via currency or multiple monetary instruments.
- Loans that lack a legitimate business purpose, provide the bank with significant fees for assuming little or no risk, or tend to obscure the movement of funds (e.g., loans made to a borrower and immediately sold to an entity related to the borrower).
Changes in Bank-to-Bank Transactions Go to top
- The size and frequency of currency deposits increases rapidly with no corresponding increase in non-currency deposits.
- A bank is unable to track the true account holder of correspondent or concentration account transactions.
- The turnover in large-denomination bills is significant and appears uncharacteristic, given the bank’s location.
- Changes in currency-shipment patterns between correspondent banks are significant.
Cross-Border Financial Institution Transactions Go to top
- U.S. bank increases sales or exchanges of large denomination U.S. bank notes to Mexican financial institution(s).
- Large volumes of small denomination U.S. banknotes being sent from Mexican casas de cambio to their U.S. accounts via armored transport or sold directly to U.S. banks. These sales or exchanges may involve jurisdictions outside of Mexico.
- Casas de cambio direct the remittance of funds via multiple funds transfers to jurisdictions outside of Mexico that bear no apparent business relationship with the casas de cambio. Funds transfer recipients may include individuals, businesses, and other entities in free trade zones.
- Casas de cambio deposit numerous third-party items, including sequentially numbered monetary instruments, to their accounts at U.S. banks.
- Casas de cambio direct the remittance of funds transfers from their accounts at Mexican financial institutions to accounts at U.S. banks. These funds transfers follow the deposit of currency and third-party items by the casas de cambio into their Mexican financial institution.
Bulk Currency Shipments Go to top
- An increase in the sale of large denomination U.S. bank notes to foreign financial institutions by U.S. banks.
- Large volumes of small denomination U.S. bank notes being sent from foreign nonbank financial institutions to their accounts in the United States via armored transport, or sold directly to U.S. banks.
- Multiple wire transfers initiated by foreign nonbank financial institutions that direct U.S. banks to remit funds to other jurisdictions that bear no apparent business relationship with that foreign nonbank financial institution. Recipients may include individuals, businesses, and other entities in free trade zones and other locations.
- The exchange of small denomination U.S. bank notes for large denomination U.S. bank notes that may be sent to foreign countries.
- Deposits by foreign non-bank financial institutions to their accounts at U.S. banks that include third-party items, including sequentially numbered monetary instruments.